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About Marwaris
 
 
Introduction
Marwaris (मारवाड़ी ) or Rajasthani people are Indo-Aryan ethnic group, that inhabit the Rajasthan region of India. Their language Rajasthani is a part of the western group of Indo-Aryan languages.
The word Marwar is considered to be derived from Sanskrit word Maruwat, the meaning of maru being 'desert'. Others believe that word Marwar is made up of Mar from alternate name of Jaisalmer and last part war of Mewar.
The Marwari name was given to people of Rajasthan by Kolkata, who migrated for trading and to do business in Kolkata. Many people from various Marwari castes migrated to distant states for business, agriculture and later became successful. The term "Marwari" caught on as a way to refer to a businessman from Marwar. This usage is imprecise. Other castes from Rajasthan did not migrate to such an extent, so awareness about them in other states is low. Marwaris comprise the people who originally belonged to Rajasthan, particularly, areas in and around Jaipur, Sikar, Jhunjhunu, Bikaner, Pali, Jalore, Nagaur and certain other adjoining areas. The term 'Marwari' had a geographical connotation, so there can be a Marwari Farmer, Trader, Rajput, Brahmin, and so on. Traders and farmer of could be found all over the India, they have migrated themselves in search of business..
Our Predecessors
Present Jodhpur and Adjoining Districts was known as the ancient kingdom of Marwad (Marwar) the Land of Death, the largest kingdom in Rajputana and the third largest of the Indian Kingdoms, after Kashmir and Hyderabad. Jodhpur, former capital of Marwad state, retains much of its medieval character. Beginning in 1549, when the city was called Jodhagarh, the Rathor clan of Rajputs fought and ruled from the virtually impregnable fort until their territory covered some 35,000 sq. miles making it the largest Rajput state.
The earliest recorded account begins from the time of Mughal empire. Since the time of the Mughal period (16th century-19th centuries), particularly from the time of Akbar (1542-1605), Marwari entrepreneurs have been moving out of their homeland of Marwar and Rajasthan, and adjoining regions, to different parts of Undivided India. The first waves migration took place during the Mughal period, and a number of Marwari baniyas moved to the eastern parts of India, currently comprising the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, and Jharkhand; and Bangladesh.
During the period of the Nawabs of Bengal, Marwari vaishyas exhibited their acumen, and controlled the mint and banking. Jagath Seth who controlled the finances of Murshidabad Darbar was an Oswal, one of several sub-groups of Marwaris. The business houses of Gopal Das and Banarasi Das, also Oswal Marwaris, undertook large scale commercial and banking activities.
Several Marwaris, after permanenet settlement was introduced by the British Raj, acquired large estates, in eastern part of India, particularly in Bengal. They included Dulalachand Singh, (alias Dulsing), a Porwal Marwari, who had acquired several Zamindaris around Dhaka, currently the capital of Bangladesh, as also in Bakarganj, Patuakhali, and Comilla, all places currently part of Bangladesh. These Zamindaris were managed and co-owned with khwajas of Dhaka. Dulalchand Singh family also emerged as a business tycoon controlling jute trade.
After India’s First War of Independence (1857-58), when social and political disturbances subsided, another wave of large scale migration of Marwaris took place, and during the remaining period of 19th century, a number of Marwari business houses, small and big, had emerged. The Marwari community controlled all the major business activities of a large geographical areas of the eastern parts of the Indian subcontinent. With a sizeable presence in present day Myanmar and Bangladesh,
Language

The Marwari language It is popularly written in Devanagari script, as is Hindi, Sanskrit and Nepali.The language belonging to the Sanskritic subgroup, of the Indo-Aryan branch, of the Indo-European language family. Marwari, or Marrubhasha, as it is referred to by Marwaris, is the traditional, historical, language of the Marwari ethnicity.

The "Marwari" spoken by the marwari merchants, farmers, social workers of the previous generation was actually the dialect of Shekhawati/Dhundhar region. Large numbers, especially in Rajasthan, still converse fluently in Marwari. Various dialects of the language are found, which vary with the speakers' areas of origin, communities etc. The language is facing extinction.

Diaspora

Marwaris spread to many regions of India, and even to neighboring and all other countries around the globe, as they expanded their business and trade networks. There are more Marwaris than there are baniyas from UP or Bihar. Marwaris did not adopt varna system. In many locales, Marwari immigrants over time (and, usually involving many generations) adopted, or blended into, the regional culture. For example, in Punjab, Marwaris adopted Punjabi, and in Gujarat, Gujarati. Significant concentrations of Marwari traders live in Kolkata in the Burrabazar area and are leading lights in business there. A large number of Marwaris are also in Mumbai, Bangalore, Pune, Chennai and Hyderabad. In Pakistan, the largest numbers are found in Karachi, from where Pakistan's Marwari cricketeer Danish Kaneria hails. Marwaris have founded businesses in neighboring Nepal, especially in Birganj, Biratnagar and Kathmandu.

Marwari with their business acumen, farmers have migrated across many different parts of the country, and to other countries of the world. In the eastern part of India, they are found in Kolkata, Cuttack, Asansol, Raniganj, Bankura, Siliguri, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, etc., where Marwaris are among the prominent businessmen.

Sharp Business Acumen

Marwaris are among the major business classes in India. Marwari Businesses are known for their ethical operations. It is considered to be the most dependable community in terms of doing business with. The Marwaris were the pioneer in the textile and the stock markets and could be said to be responsible for the boom in these sectors earlier. The Marwari business community has contributed to the growth of the Indian economy to a great extent.

Most of the successful channel companies are headed by first-generation entrepreneurs. Almost 90% of the channel in Kolkata comprises Marwari business people. This community is strong in the western region and even down south in places like Chennai. In India, Marwaris contributes a measure sole in IT sector. In some cases, these people were encouraged by their family to get into the IT business. In other cases, people got into the channel business envisioning it to be a great success. Marwaris have all the characteristics what an entrepreneur may possess. They are risk taking people. They are very innovative, creative and broad thinking people. The world's great businessmen like Kumar Mangalam Birla, Laxmi Niwas Mittal, Shashi Ruia & Ravi Ruia, Gautam Singhania, Kishor Biyani, Vishnuhari Dalmia, Ajay Piramal, Rahul Bajaj, Sunil Mittal and many other marwaris are dominating the Business world. They are making a mark in the world arena. Business familes like the Birlas have been pioneers in various industries and at the same time have been very sincere towards their social responsibility. They have given back to the society in terms of educational institutions and employment in general.

Marwaris are also very aggressive when it comes to business, and don't let go of any prospective opportunity that comes their way. Working hard is another aspect about Marwaris that helps in the long run. People's common perception about Marwaris is that they are very stingy by nature. But the people from the community themselves deny this. They are definitely very strict when it comes to finance in business matters as they believe that every penny saved is a penny earned. Famous "Purta System"(Costing) is invented by Marwaris. This system helps them to ensure profit. The whole of marawadi community main source of income is from usury(interest)they give money on huge interest to small time borrowers.

Art & Architecture:

Marwad Rajasthan is known for its traditional and colorful art. The block prints, tye and die prints, Bagaru prints, zari embroidery are major export products from Marwad. Handicraft items like wooden furniture and handicrafts, carpets, blur potteries are some of the things you will find here. Marwad is shoppers paradise.

Marwad is famous for the majestic forts, intricately carved temples and decorated havelis. Dilwara Temples, Jaisalmer Havelis are true architectural heritage.

Some major castes of people who reside in Rajasthan are :

Rajputs :
A large portion of the population of Rajasthan, India is belongs to Rajputs clan. Rajputs were the rulers of former princely state of Rajasthan. Rajputs of Rajasthan are known for their bravery and heroism. Even today one can experience Rajputs’ legends of their bravery and heroism. Even today Rajasthan is called the land of Rajputs. Rajputs generally followed Vedic Religion and worship Surya (Sun), Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva.

Brahmins :
 Brahmins are also found in the state of Rajasthan. Brahmins are a group of priestly people. Brahmins - a group of priestly people - have the main occupation of worshipping and performance of spiritual rites.

Vaishya and Marwaris :
Vaishyas are generally associated with business and trading community. Apart from Rajasthan, these days they are settled in every nook and corner of the country. Some of the sub-castes are Porals, Sarawagis, Mahajans, Shrimals, Lohias, Baldias, Pheriwalas, Bohres, Sunlas, Shrshrimals, Vijayyargias, Agarwals, and Maheswaaris, etc

Other Castes :
Apart from Rajputs, Brahmins, and Vaishyas, a large number of agricultural castes are also found in Rajasthan. They are Gurjar, Jat, Mali, Kalvi, etc.
Tribe :
Rajasthan has a number of tribes having their own customs and traditions.
They are :
    • Meo and Banjara (the traveling tribes)
    • Minas/Minawati (found in Jaipur, Dholpur, Bharatpur and Alwar)
    • Sahariyas (found in Kota region)
    • Gadia Lohar (smiths)
    • Bhils (found in Udaipur, Sirohi, Bhilwara, Dungarpur, Chittorgarh and Banswara)
    • Grasia (found in Mewar region)
    • Kathodi (found in Mewar region)
    • Rabaris (cattle breeders, found in Marwar region)
    • Kanjar
    • Sansi
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